Each tooth consists of:
- Crown: The visible portion of a tooth.
- Root: The portion of the tooth embedded in the gum.
- Pulp: Located in the center of the tooth, it contains the arteries, veins, nerves and lymphatic tissue.
- Blood vessels: They carry nutrients to the pulp.
- Root canal: The canal in the root of the tooth is where the nerve and blood vessels travel with nutrients to the tooth from the mandible or the maxilla.
- Ligament: The connective tissue that surrounds the root of a tooth and connects it to the maxilla or mandible.
- Bone: Alveolar bone forms tooth socket and part of the teeth.
- Cementum: The layer of tissue covering the dentin on the root of the tooth. Serves the same role as enamel.
- Dentin: The calcified tissue underlying the enamel (on the crown) and cementum (on the root), making up the main bulk of the tooth.
- Enamel: The calcified outer layer of the crown of the tooth.
Although each tooth has the same basic structure, some variation exists. Different types of teeth have variation in their roots. Incisors and cuspids have only one root. Maxillary (upper) premolar teeth commonly have two roots, whereas the mandibular premolars commonly have one. The premolars may also have two roots fused to look as one. The molars on the maxillary arch have three roots, while, on the other hand, the molars on the mandibular arch have two roots.